John Ralston Saul pointed out, "we have killed in political strife among ourselves less than a hundred citizens – most of them on a single day at Batoche,” Saskatchewan, during the Riel Rebellion. “The first measure of any citizen-based culture must not be its rhetoric or myths or leaders or laws but how few of its own citizens it kills.”                                                This non-violent tradition we owe to Robert Baldwin and Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine, who refused to abandon principle, and who walked away from retribution.

Johnson was born in Danville, Quebec, Canada. He was

the son of Francis Johnson, an anglophone labourer of Irish heritage, and Marie-Adéline Daniel, a French Canadian. He was raised bilingually but educated entirely in French.

     Johnson won a by-election in 1946 and became the Union Nationale Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) for the district of Bagot. He was re-elected in 1948, 1952, 1956 and 1960.  He was appointed to the Cabinet in 1958 and served as Minister of Hydraulic Resources until the 1960 election which was won by the Liberals. He was the minister who started the Manic-5 hydroelectric project in 1958 of which its Daniel-Johnson Dam was named after him.

He was elected Party leader in 1961 His 1965 book Égalité ou indépendance ("Equality or independence") made him the first leader of a Quebec political party to recognize the possibility of independence for Canada from the British Crown. Under the same slogan his party won the 1966 election and he became Premier of Quebec, a position he retained until his death.. In July 1968, Johnson suffered a heart attack which kept him from work until mid-September.[4]On September 25, 1968, Hydro-Québec, the government-owned utility organized a ceremony to mark the completion of the Manicouagan-5 dam.On September 26, 1969, a year to the day after Johnson's death, the new Premier Jean-Jacques Bertrand accompanied by Johnson's widow and children, unveiled two plaques and officially dedicated the dam after his predecessor.

  In 1943, Johnson married Reine Gagné. Their sons, Pierre-Marc Johnson and Daniel Johnson, Jr. also became premiers of Quebec:.

Prime Minister 1948 - 1957                       Companion of the Order of Canada

                                                                           The first Irish to settle in Canada                                                                                            landed in 1536 and 'struck gold'                                                                                           and the island we know as                                                                                                      Newfoundland was known                                                                                                              as Talamh an Eise                                                                                                                  (Land of Fish)

    

We'll never know. Were they simply tossed across the heaving Atlantic or did they set out with a sense of purpose in the wake of Columbus' crossing? Some say      St Brendan, born c 1484 in Ireland. lead them on the voyage to a new life. 
    Written records assure us that they set out in a currach. Built of lightweight wood or wickerwork frame over which animal skins, cured with oak bark and sealed with tar, were stretched. The currach (some variants) remains unique to the West Coast. 
        The seagoing currach was described by Captain Phillips as "A portable vessel of wicker ordinarily used by the Wild Irish" who kept up a thriving fishing industry there until the Great Hunger of the 19th C broke the economy and drove millions of destitute Irish from Ireland. The 20th C brought the founding of the Canadian Nation, a new  wave of immigration and  the settling the vast prairies.  Arriving in Canada, most Irish set  aside their language to fit in but still, scorned as 'Famine Irish' found themselves on the low steps of Canadian culture. However, excelling in diverse fields, they became a cultural force and brought to the fore values that significantly define  what it means to be Canadian.                                                  The 2011 Census reported more than 4-million descendants of Irish immigrants - 14% of the Canadian population.

Robert Baldwin 

Statesman. Solicitor General of Upper Canada. M.L.A.    LEGACY: Resonsible Government - responsible to the people, dependent on the support of an elected assembly,        rather than on the monarch.                                           33

Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael & St George

                                             Kirkpatrick was born Dec. 25, 1805, Coolmine House Co.                                                 Dublin, son of Alexander Kirkpatrick of Coolmine House                                                 and the ancestral seat of the Kirkpatricks, Drumcondra                                               House, Co. Kildare.
         He immigrated to Upper Canada in 1823 and settled at Kingston where he read law and was called to the bar in 1828. Kirkpatrick had a reputation for integrity and soundness of judgement especially in business matters. In that trust, he established a flourishing practice and, until 1845 also held the lucrative position of Collector of Customs. He served as president of the Kingston Permanent Building Society, local solicitor of the Bank of Upper Canada from about 1837 until its collapse in 1866, and local solicitor to its trustees until his death.
In 1838, Kirkpatrick was elected as first mayor of Kingston, but was later disqualified because he was not a resident at the time. In 1847, residentially qualified, he was again elected Mayor. In 1846, he was named Queen’s Counsel.
Kirkpatrick was a staunch Conservative. In 1867 he represented Frontenac in the first Dominion of Canada Parliament. His son, George Airey, succeeded him as MP and, in 1892, and was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Ontario.
Thomas Kirkpatrick died, March 1870, in Kingston in 1870  while still in office.   

      Kirkpatrick Street, a major street located in the Kingston neighbourhood of Kingscourt, is named in his memory.                                                                     103      

Joan Kathleen (Donovan) O'Malley

Seamstress to the Maple Leaf Flag                                150

Thomas D'Arcy McGee

Francis Collins

Upper Canada Journalist, founder of the Canadian Freeman

Advocate for Responsible Government                            18

     French played an important and enduring role in the                                       history of Canada. Born out of a need for a national police                                    force to implement the law in Canada's newly acquired western territories, the North West Mounted Police was founded. It was French who organized and firmly established that force we know now as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police which has evolved into world-renowned organization of more than 28,000 people.
    George Arthur French was born 19 June, 1841, Roscommon, Ireland, son of John and Isabella (Hamilton) French. He started his military education at Sandhurst, but transferred to the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich (London) and became a gunner, which suggests that his family was not well-to-do. Commissions in the Royal Artillery were not purchased as were those in infantry and cavalry regiments.
     Appointed a lieutenant on 19 June 1860, French served with the RA in Kingston from 1862 to 1866.  On December 18, 1862, he married Janet Clarke in Kingston, Upper Canada. They had two sons and three daughters.
    In 1869 he was seconded to the Canadian militia as inspector of artillery and warlike stores; though promoted lieutenant-colonel, a rank he would not achieve in the army until 1 Oct. 1887, he probably accepted the move as much for monetary as for career considerations. Conscious of the withdrawal of the imperial forces from Canada, French urged on the Department of Militia and Defence, in his report of 1 Jan. 1870, “the absolute necessity of raising, permanently, a few batteries of garrison artillery.” To his recommendation he appended estimates for two batteries. In response the department moved to establish permanent schools of artillery in Kingston and Quebec City for training the militia. While retaining his inspectorship, French was authorized on 20 Oct. 1871 to set up and command Kingston’s School of Gunnery (A Battery, Garrison Artillery).
     When the government of Sir John A. Macdonald created the North-West Mounted Police in 1873, the choice of who would be its first commissioner was of the utmost importance. There was no shortage of applicants, but this competent commander who had served briefly in the Royal Irish Constabulary before entering the army which was an important model for the North West Mounted Police. 
French took over as commissioner on 16 Oct. 1873. News of the massacre in the Cypress Hills (Alta/Sask.) of Hunkajuka and some of his followers by a band of Canadian and American traders and hunters had forced the government to advance: 150 recruits and several officers were sent to Winnipeg, where they began training. In January 1874, having assessed his command, French returned to Toronto to raise a second contingent.
     French, 16 officers, 201 men, and 244 horses boarded special trains on 6 June and travelled west through Chicago to Fargo (N.Dakota.). From there they rode north to Dufferin, Man., where they met the group who had wintered in Winnipeg. French’s instructions were to take his force west to what is now southern Alberta and stop the whisky trade being conducted from the Montana Territory. The plan for the journey, which became known as the Long March, was to follow a route just north of the 49th parallel in order to take advantage of the camps and caches established by the international boundary surveyors, but reports of fighting near the border between natives and the United States army caused Ottawa to order French to stay well north. The change created serious difficulties for the NWMP. The only available map of the region, prepared by John Palliser’s expedition of 1857, turned out to be inaccurate; guides could not be found; and the police were unable to locate feed and water for their horses. At the end of July, nearly a month after the march had begun, French sent a troop and the sickest horses north along the Carlton Trail to the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Fort Edmonton. He moved on across the trackless prairie, pushing his weary men westward until they reached recognizable territory. On 18 September they halted and established a camp in the Sweet Grass Hills, Alberta/Montana border.
     He took a party south to Fort Benton, Montana, to obtain horses and supplies, to telegraph Ottawa and to gather evidence about the Cypress Hills massacre. With the government’s approval he left most of his force and headed for a site that had been chosen in Ottawa near the proposed rail line. The site was no where near any First Nation communities and was barren, swept by fire. French, though he had no jurisdiction in Manitoba, wisely moved his headquarters south to Dufferin.
    When French returned to Swan River in the spring of 1875, whilst he loyally tried to make it habitable, he lobbied strenuously to have his headquarters moved to Fort Macleod (Alta), where most of the force’s actual policing was cenetered.
     Unfortunately the new prime minister, Alexander Mackenzie, was exceedingly parsimonious and he and his cabinet harboured grave doubts about the wisdom of creating the NWMP in the first place. French resigned in July 1876. To his credit, his officers and men showed a great a great appreciation for his leadership giving him a gold watch worth $150 (a large sum for the time) and Mrs French a silver service. The British government also recognized his efforts, with a Companion (of the Order) of St Michael and St George on 30 May, 1877.
     He went back to postings with the Royal Artillery in England and appointments in Australia and India. He was commandant of the colonial forces in Queensland in 1883 where, in 1885, he reorganized the defence force under legislation drafted by French and based on Canada’s system. His last appointment was as commandant of the colonial forces was in New South Wales where he was promoted major-general. He retired in September 1902 and was made Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George that year. His wife, Janet, died in 1917. French lived in London until his death in 1921.                                                         
19      

Prime Minister 1963 - 1968        Nobel Peace Prize 1957

Visionary, Founding Father

Louise Crummy McKinney 

The First Woman Elected

to a Legislature in the British Empire 1917                                121

                                        Born in1882, at Compton, Québec, with an Irish mother and Québécois                                             father, St. Laurent grew up fluently  bilingual. He quickly became a                                                        successful corporation lawyer and professor of Law at Laval (1920-30s)  He  served as head of the Québec Bar and president of the Canadian Bar Association 1937-40 and was a counsel to the Rowell-Sirois Royal Commissionon on Dominion-Provincial Relations.

     In Dec. 1941 St-Laurent was approached by Liberal PM Mackenzie-King to become minister of justice. In February 1942 he was elected to the House of Commons representing Québec East
     He went on to be Prime Minister 1948 – 57, heading a cabinet of exceptional competence, including Lester B. Pearson in external afairs.  St. Laurent was a prime architect of Canada's international policies after WWII and promoted Canadian membership in NATO. The post-war years were prosperous in Canada, and under his leadership, Canada extended old-age pensions, enacted hospital insurance and approved provincial equalization payments. The Trans-Canada Highway Act took effect in 1949, the St. Lawrence Seaway started construction in 1954, he introduced equalization payments to distribute federal taxes to the provinces and created Canada Council in 1956. He provided funds for hospital insurance and introduced universal old age pensions. During his tenure Newfoundland joined Confederation and Canada fought in the Korean War.
     The Pipeline Debate in 1956 divided the party and, in June 1957,  St-Laurent's government was defeated by Diefenbaker’s PC’s. In January 1958 he retired from public life and returned to his law practice.
     St-Laurent was much admired for his decisiveness, patriotism and sharp mind, and held in

great personal affection by those who worked with him. In 1967, he was

named Companion of the Order of Canada “for his service to his  country.”

Shortly after his death in 1973, the home of his birth  became the Louis

St-Laurent.National Historic Site of Canada.                                                    

Quebec’s Eastern Townships celebrate his life and he is further     

commemorated at Louis S. St-Laurent Heritage House, Quebec City.

Journalist. Publisher. Politician.

Aideen Nicholson

Member of Parliament

2003 Distinguished Service Award

                                                                              131

Senator Patricia Carney

                                                            Joan was born in 1944 in Dauphin, Manitoba. Her  father                                                                        Kenneth Donovan was a British home child sent to  Canada                                                                in 1929; her mother Bernadette, was born in P.Q. to Mary                                                              Leahy whose parents were from County Tipperary and                                                                     Michael McCaffrey whose family came from the North of                                                                 Ireland.  Joan and Brian O’Malley married in 1963.
        So how did Joan get to sew Canada’s First Maple Leaf flag?  Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson had made an election promise to deliver a new National flag. A task force was commissioned. They sifted through 6,000 submitted designs and chose three. The flag designs were flat drawings. Flags may be hung flat on a parade float or a wall, but mostly flags are for raising proudly up the flagpole to catch the wind and our salute. The Prime Minister concluded that the real test would be to see the designed flags flying.
     Late on Friday afternoon, November 6, 1964, the PM requested a prototype for each of the three designs – and that they be delivered to him in time for him to fly them over Harrington Lake, Ontario, that very weekend!   Joan’s father, Ken, was the purchasing agent for the Canadian Govt. Exhibition Commission.  Just before closing, Donovan managed to get a Hull Camping Equipment store to provide 30 yards of bunting and had it delivered to the Commission’s office by taxi.  The production crew got busy silk-screening the designs. By 9:00 p.m. the designs were silk screened, all that was required was a seamstress to assemble them. Where do you find an accomplished seamstress late on a Friday night?
It wasn’t what Joan O’Malley expected when she heard her father on the phone asking, “Would she … ?  Of course she would.   Joan and her husband loaded her Singer sewing machine into their car and headed to the Commission’s office. Sewing the flags was not easy. Portables are not designed for heavy bunting flag material. Joan did much needlework by hand, stitching the edges together to make the flags flyable.  With two completed replicas of each of the three designs, at nearly midnight, . Donovan headed for the P.M.'s residence at 24 Sussex Drive, Ottawa.
Thanks to Joan for the skill and speed with which she rendered that historical work.

Richard John Uniacke 

                                           Solicitor General of Nova Scotia.                    Advocate General of the Vice-Admiralty Court.  

Member of Legislative Assembly

                                      71

Thomas Kirkpatrick

Blake was born October 1833, in a log cabin on Bear Creek

(Sydenham River), Upper Canada in the portion of Adelaide

that later became part of Metcalfe Township. His evangelical

Anglican family had emigrated from Ireland in the company of relatives and friends. Blake’s early years were spent in Toronto, where his father was a successful lawyer, Reform politician and judge. Edward and his younger brother were for a time educated at home by their parents. At Upper Canada College he became head boy in 1850, won a variety of prizes, was highly thought of by his teachers, and emerged as a strong intellectual. Following graduation from the University of Toronto (BA 1854), he was articled to his father’s former law firm was admitted as an attorney during Trinity term in 1856, opened his own practice and was called to the bar
     In 1858 he married Margaret Cronyn, they had three daughters and four sons. In 1859 they moved in with his parents in their new farm residence north of Bloor St, Humewood.
     In 1861 Blake’s prestige was such that he became a lecturer in equity for the University of Toronto and the Law Society of Upper Canada. Three years later he was appointed a QC then treasurer of the law society in 1879. Addressing political issues Blake argued with great moral conviction that “no man being a member should be placed in power without being sanctioned by the people,” confirming his belief in representative government and rejection of unreasoning authority. In 1867, he won seats in both provincial Assembly and federal House of Commons.
      In December 1871 he was premier and his administration brought into law a significant reform programme: the budget improved social welfare on a narrow front, teachers’ pay was increased, an act extending the property rights of married women was passed, and the functioning of the courts was altered. In 1873 he became a minister without portfolio but resigned from cabinet the following month removing for a time to Britain. While he was in England, his duties were appointed to another judge who had affirmed death sentences for John and James Young in the murder of Cayuga farmer Abel McDonald the previous year. On his return Blake reversed the sentences raising a furore.  
     Blake resigned on 11 Dec. 1877. In the 1878 election, Blake reluctantly agreed to run again. In the overall defeat suffered by the Liberals, he lost his seat. By 1879 he had taken up residence on Jarvis Street, closer to his offices at Adelaide and Victoria.  In Nov. 1879 Blake was re-elected by acclamation in Durham West and became leader in caucus. He would be re-elected in 1882 and again in 1887, his last year as leader remaining for two more years in parliament.
     But Blake was committed to an Irish problem that, even after the defeat of Gladstone’s Home Rule Bill in 1893, offered some hope of resolution. Blake acted as an important mediator, a back-room and occasionally a parliamentary rationalizer of Irish nationalist sentiment. His facilitation included large financial infusions, some personal, others courtesy of his connections. From 1898–1900 Blake played a significant role in the unification of the nationalist movement.
     During the last few years of his Irish involvement Blake’s health deteriorated. His British parliamentary career at an end, Blake moved to the quiet waters of retirement in Canada.
    Reflecting on arguments Blake had made throughout his career it was clear made it clear that he had effected a fundamental transformation in the character of Canadian confederation. The law too was political: it was imbued with ideology and policy, as Blake believed and as his practice of it showed. During his career he shaped much law, as a premier, as a minister of justice, as a leading figure in parliamentary opposition, and especially as a lawyer in the courts.
      Blake moved back to Toronto, near his family. Except for occasional holiday absences, he rarely ventured out, and his political contacts withered. He tidied up his estate in 1906, destroying the bulk of his political correspondence; this process continued after his stroke, for he was aware that his time was limited. He died in 1912 at the age of 78.

      McKinney was born Louise Crummy on September 22, 1868, in the tiny community of Frankville, Ontario, southwest of Ottawa. Of Irish descent, she was the second daughter in a strict Methodist family of ten children. While still a schoolgirl, she joined the Women's Christian Temperance Union's youth

     She was educated in Ontario, at Athens High School and Smiths Falls Model School wanting to be a doctor but women were not accepted in medical schools. Like many young women her second choice was Normal School and a teaching career. In 1893 at the age of 26, visiting family in North Dakota, she became an organizer for the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). There she met , also of Irish descent. In 1896 they married in North Dakota where their sonwas born. in 1903, they joined the large movement of settlers from the Western states to better farming land in southern Alberta. They settled on a quarter section near Claresholm, south of Calgary. James began building the first Methodist Church at Claresholm andLouise set up a temperance local, of which she was the first president and retained the office for more than 25 years. She established more than 40 WCTU chapters in Alberta and Saskatchewan. As well, she became the president of the national WCTU and a vice-president of the international organization

      McKinney was a member of the Famous Five. This was the group of five Alberta women who went all the way to the Privy Council in Britain to establish the right of women to be recognized as persons and, therefore, eligible to be appointed as senators. McKinney was an Alberta and a temperance advocate campaigning for Alberta vote to prohibit alcohol in 1915. She was also one of the Western Canadian woman to bring three denominations together to for the United Church of Canada.
     In her maiden speech to the legislature, McKinney focused on Canada's responsibility to the returned servicemen, urging help for them so they might establish homesteads in areas with schools and transportation. A strong debater, legislator McKinney fought for stricter liquor control laws and other measures to assist immigrants, widows and separated women. She introduced a motion that led to the Dower Act, ensuring that a certain proportion of a deceased husband's property went to his widow. As well, in common with James Weir, the other Non-Partisan League member in the legislature, McKinney urged that the Dominion government take over all the coalfields in Alberta that had operating mines, and develop their unworked sea. She served one four-year term. Her bigger defeat would be the 1923 vote that repealed prohibition. Her greater victory would be her participation in the Famous Five women who appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada, lost but went on and  persuaded Prime Minister Mackenzie King to appeal the case to Canada's highest court - Britain's Privy Council - on October 18, 1929, from a London courtroom came the landmark decision that Canadian women were indeed "persons," eligible for appointment to the Senate and participation in the final stages of enacting federal laws in Canada.
     Louise McKinney was 63 years of age at her death, on July 10, 1931. She was laid to rest in Claresholm, Alberta.

     Robert Baldwin was born at York ( Toronto ), Upper Canada , on May 12, 1804 , the eldest son of William Warren Baldwin and Phoebe Willcocks. His grandfather, also Robert Baldwin ("Robert the emigrant") moved to Upper Canada from Ireland in 1799. Robert married his cousin Augusta Elizabeth Sullivan, daughter of Daniel Sullivan, on May 3, 1827. The couple had four children, two sons and two daughters. Augusta Elizabeth died January 11, 1836

     Robert was educated at the Home District Grammar School, studied law under his father, and was called to the bar of Upper Canada in 1825.

     In 1829 Baldwin was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, but at the general elections of 1830 he was defeated, and he did not again sit in the legislature until after the Union of 1841. His ability and his high character, however, won for him a general esteem; and in 1836 he was appointed by Sir Francis Bond Head to the Executive Council of Upper Canada. His tenure of office lasted fewer than 4 weeks, when of a disagreement with the lieutenant-governor brought about the resignation of the whole council. Later that year, in England, he submitted to the Colonial Office a memorandum which, for the first time, clearly and completely defined the concept of responsi­ble government in Canada.  During the rebellion of 1837, the task of parleying with the rebels was assigned to Baldwin.
     In February, 1840, Baldwin was persuaded to accept the post of solicitor-general of Upper Canada. In February, 1841, he became solicitor-general of Canada West, with a seat in the Executive Council. At the same time he was elected as a Reformer to represent Hastings in the Assembly; and when the governor-general declined to reconstruct the administration to accord with the views of the Reformers, Baldwin resigned from the Council, and went into oppo­sition. In September, 1841, he intro­duced into the Assembly a series of resolutions in favour of responsible government; and when the government was defeated in the House in September, 1842, it was to Baldwin that the new governor, Sir Charles Bagot turned to form an administration.           Together with Louis Lafontaine, Baldwin formed a ministry-known as the first Baldwin-Lafontaine administration-which held office until November 1843 , was in opposition utilto 1848 when  the second Baldwin-Lafontaine administration, often called "The Great Ministry" resumed and the principle of responsible government in Canada was finally and indisputably established.
He died in Toronto on December 9, 1858. 

                                               In 2003 Elliot Lake's Aideen Nicholson, Member of Parliament 1974-88  received special recognition from the Canadian Association of Former Parliamentarians – she was presented with the Distinguished Service Award, recognizing outstanding contributions to the promotion and understanding of Canada’s parliamentary system of government. Each year's winner of the non-partisan award is chosen by a six-person committee representing all regions of Canada. The award is given to a former parliamentarian each year who demonstrates qualities including - effectiveness in representing constituents - a sense of history - ability to articulate a vision of Canada – courage - intellectual honesty.
      She moved to Northern Ontario (Elliot Lake) in the early 1990’s to take up residence and to become a Northerner where she became involved in numerous community activities - St. Joseph General Hospital trustee, White Mountain Academy Board member, Board Member for the Women's Crisis Centre, Elliot Lake Family Life, and St. Peter the Apostle Anglican Church. She also kept up her membership in a local book club which usually met in her home
      During her parliamentary career Aideen distinguished herself on both the government side of the House of Commons (1974-84) and in Opposition (1984-1988). Her  responsibilities included Chair of the Standing Committee on Labour, Manpower & Immigration, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Supply & Services, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Consumer & Corporate Affairs, Chair of the Public Accounts Committee, and Official Opposition Critic for Financial Institutions.  
      Following her post-secondary education at Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland) and at the London School of Economics (England) she pursued a career in social work and continued in this field after 1988 as a member of the Immigration and Refugee Board (1990-1996).

IRELAND CANADA MONUMENT

Edward Whelan, born 1824 in Ballina, Ireland. He began                               his        his schooling there before emigrating with his mother to                Halifax.              Halifax.  He entered school and, at 8 yrs of age, was                                         apprenticed to  the printing office of newspaper where                                   owner Joseph Howe  encouraged him to continue his education by reading. Whilst attendeding St. Marys Seminary, Whelan continued to work for Howe until 1842 when he briefly held a he position of newspaper editor before moving to Prince Edward Island and founding his own twice-weekly devoted to reform, particularly the issue of responsible government being essential to dismantling the predominant system of leasehold land tenure. The newspaper failed financially and Whelan considered leaving PEI. But, in August 1946, he won a seat in the House of Assembly, representing St. Peters in eastern PEI. One year later he published a new weekly and, wielding a brilliant satiric pen, his character insights and analyses of contemporaries won him a great following.
     By early 1850, Whelan increased the frequency of his newspaper. A talented orator, he spoke at many public meetings in support of responsible government. Responsible government was won in the colony, April 1851 and Whelan’s agenda widened to include free education, reforming the leasehold land system and extending the electoral franchise.
     When union of the British North American colonies emerged as a practical political question in 1864, Whelan anticipated that the Colonial Office — which had provided landlords with consistent backing against Reform measures — would no longer be “i
ntermeddling [...] in our local legislation.”  A delegate to the Québec Conference, he continued to support union of the provinces - on this subject he was in a small minority among Islanders, and especially within his Liberal party.  The following year, Whelan retained his seat, but he accepted the office of Queen’s Printer and thereby obliged to a by-election, which he  lost .         Edward Whelan died on December 10, 1867. His legacy on the Island lives on. Regrettably, on the issue of Confederation, he did not live to see his cause succeed.

Timothy Anglin was born  31 Aug. 1822 in Clonakilty                                                 . His parents were Francis Anglin, Ease India Co.

employee, and Joan Warren.  In his relatively wealthy

middle-class Irish Catholic family in Co. Cork, Warren

received a classical education. When the Great Hunger hit Ireland in 1845 he took up school teaching in his home town. On Easter Monday 1849 he left Ireland for Saint John where his introduction to public life quickly made an impact - following a violent riot he wrote a lengthy letter to the Morning News criticizing municipal authorities and urging everyone to be calm and cooperate for the benefit of the colony. The letter launched his publication in August of the St. John Weekly Freeman, through which: he became lay spokesman for the most impoverished  - about one-third of the population, the Irish Catholics suffered proportionately more than others from low wages, unemployment, inadequate housing, and disease. They faced various forms of economic, social, political, and religious discrimination and were viewed by “respectable” citizens as being prone to drunkenness, profligacy, and violence.

     Anglin’s approach as an Irish Catholic leader was multi-faceted - he defended  them against charges that they were depraved and a burden on society; he promoted their self-respect by providing news from Ireland, supporting ethno-religious groups (Irish Friendly Society}, and by encouraging the development of Catholic welfare societies and the development of employment opportunities. He also encouraged them to improve and transform themselves with God’s help - instances of bad behavious all received a lashing in the Freeman.

     Anglin’s first effort to gain political office in 1860 failed, but in 1961 he was elected to the New Brunswick House of Assembly for Saint John County and City as an independent. He argued always that  “Where the rights of the individual are trampled upon there is despotism.”

     In 1853 he married Margaret O'Regan who died in 1855. In 1862 he married Ellen McTavish. Timothy & Ellen had 10 children, including their world famous daughter, actress Margaret Anglin.
     For British North Americans the 1860s were shaped by the American Civil War. Anglin believed the cause was the institution of slavery and the fanaticism which existed in both the North and the South. The war raised the question of colonial defence and the imperial connection. Whilst Anglin never accepted British domination of Ireland, he did accept that it provided the best defence against any aggressive American attempts to take over the colonies which he saw as innocent bystanders in quarrels between Britain and the United States.

     Circumstances in New Brunswick forced the government, led by Samuel Leonard Tilley, to call an election early in 1865.  Anglin waged a hard and skilful battle and emerged as one of the most prominent anti-confederates. Majority opinion in New Brunswick agreed with Anglin’s opposition to the union proposal and the government went down to a resounding defeat. He became an executive councillor without departmental office in th newly formed government.
     When the American branch of the Fenian movement, bent on liberating Ireland from Britain, proposed to attack Britain’s colonies in North America. Neither Anglin nor the vast majority of New Brunswick’s Irish Catholics supported them.  In the election which followed in May and June, the anti-confederates were soundly defeated, Anglin included.
     For Anglin, as for the new Dominion of Canada, the years 1867 to 1872 were a period of substantial adjustment.  In the first general election for the House of Commons he ran successfully in New Brunswick, Angin contested the unofficial leadership of Irish Catholics with Thomas D’Arcy McGee until McGee’s assassination in April 1868. Thereafter, Anglin continued to speak out on issues of particular concern to this group but his criticisms were seldom vociferous. he believed it was improving and at least was better than in the United States.

     He also found a more established party position in the House of Commons, gravitating from sitting as an independent in 1867 to being a prominent member of the loosely bound Liberal party under Alexander Mackenzie in 1872. When Macdonald’s government fell as a result of the Pacific Scandal in Nov. 1873, Anglin was excluded from the new administration formed by Alexander Mackenzie, in spite of his acknowledged prominence in Liberal circles.  As a reward for his valued services to the party Anglin was named speaker of the House of Commons in March 1874.     The connection between the government and the Freeman got Anglin into serious trouble for conflict of interest, which resulted in his being unseated from the commons in 1877.  in April,  Anglin fought a bitter summer by-election and be re-elected speaker at the beginning of the 1878 session.
     Despite his conservatism and his commitment to free enterprise, he did not join the many middle-class Canadians who condemned workers’ organizations.

In fact, he gave the activities of such groups reasonably objective coverage in the Freeman. Anglin even came to sympathize with efforts of labour unions, many of whose members in Saint John were Irish Catholics, to improve their position, provided their actions were legal, moderate, and non-violent.
     Following the defeat of the Liberals in 1878 Anglin’s political fortunes went into decline. This, along with the declining fortunes of his newspaper, led Anglin to sever his tie with the Freeman and move to Toronto in 1883.
     At 65 he had a wife and seven children aged 4 to 22 to support. In earlier years he had put aside a substantial investment, but he did not again find steady work until just prior to his death.  During these years he was engaged in occasional appointments, wrote a few articles for journals and newspapers, made the occasional speech, wrote the chapter on Archbishop John Joseph Lynch* in a volume celebrating the 50th anniversary of the archdiocese of Toronto, and was a trustee on the Toronto Separate School Board from 1888 to 1892.                              In May 1895, with the help of his two lawyer sons, he obtained steady employment, as chief clerk of the Surrogate Court of Ontario. A year later he died of a blood clot on the brain.                                                                                                      40

                                                         Francis Alexander Anglin was born  Apr. 2, 1865 Saint-John at                                                      New Brunswick, son of Timothy Warren Anglin from Co.Cork

                                                          and Ellen (McTavish) Anglin. He was e. lder brother to the renowned stage actress, Margaret Anglin,. . Anglin earned a B.A. from the University of Ottawa, enrolled as a student with the Law Society of Upper Canada and was called to the bar in 1888. He established his practice in Toronto, eventually founding the law firm of Anglin & Mallon. In 1896 he became Clerk of the Surrogate Court of Ontario. His published Limitations of Actions against Trustees and Relief from Liability for Technical Breaches of Trust. He was appointed to the Exchequer Division of the High Court of Justice of Ontario in 1904 and to the Supreme Court of Canada on February 23, 1909.

      On September 16, 1924, he became Chief Justice of Canada. He served on the Supreme Court for 24 years, retiring on February 28, 1933. Chief Justice Anglin died two days after his retirement, on March 2, 1933, at the age of 67.

Major General Sir George Arthur French

Founding Father

     Francis Collins, first Catholic Journalist in, Upper Canada, advocate of responsible government, founder, proprietor and editor of the “ Canadian Freeman,” was born at Newry, County Down, Ireland, in 1801 and educated in the Irish schools.
     The increasing emigration of the Irish to Upper Canada was an inspiration to Collins and he set sail for the town of York (Toronto) about 1820. He secured a position as a printer with the Upper Canada Gazette. There he was using his talents and learning about politics as for 5 years he was the first official stenographer to report the proceedings and speeches of the Legislature of Upper Canada.
     In 1825, he was 24 years of age when he founded his own weekly paper ‘The Canadian Freeman’. His front page motto was Fiat justitia runt caelum – Let justice be done though the heavens fall. It was a statement that revealed his violent opposition to the “Family Compact” (the term used by historians for a small closed group of men who exercised most of the political, economic and judicial power in Upper Canada (modern Ontario) from the 1810s to the 1840s. It was the Upper Canadian equivalent of the Château Clique in Lower Canada) His opposition and bold statements in the Freeman would cost him a lengthy and painful imprisonment, but he persisted. The story of the young Irishman, his struggle for Responsible Government in Upper Canada; his imprisonment for supposed libel is a tragic story of the discrimination of the time.
     But, there was love and success for the resilient Irish. In 1896 Lord Russell of Killowen Newry, County Down, and Chief Justice of England, visited Canada. Also present was a young woman of his family, Ann Moore, who was there reunited with Collins. Their marriage was blessed with four children - Mary, Francis, Margaret and Frances Liberta.
     Collins died from Cholera on August 29, 1834, at the age of 33 years. He had been a successful business man and left his orphaned children supported. Moreover, his ideal of civil government had finally triumphed. The political liberty, free institutions, and the priceless boon of responsible government Canada enjoys today is largely owed to Francis Collins and others like him who suffered and struggled in the first half of the 19th century that we might live as free men and women. That change would be realized three years after his untimely death, through the tragedy of bloody rebellion.                                         

In 1781 he was named solicitor general of NS. By 1800                                                                        his was the province's largest legal practice;  combined                                                                     wiith his appointment (1784) as advocate general of the                                                                           Vice-Admiralty Court, it secured his personal fortune.                                                                            He also sat in the legislature (1783-93, 1798-1805) For more than 30 years Uniacke struggled for free trade, by which he meant the removal of those laws that prevented the colonies from trading wherever and in whatever they wished.      

      He was born in Ireland (Castletown Roche, County Cork) on November 22nd, 1753. Placed with a Dublin attorney in 1769, a quarrel with his father lead him to emigrate to America. There he met Moses Delesdernier who was looking for settlers to Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia. He accepted  Delesdernier’s offer of employment, went to Nova Scotia and, at the age of 21, married 13-year-old Martha Maria Delesdernier.  
       The American Revolution was brewing and Uniacke was a sympathizer with the rebels. An attack on Fort Cumberland landed him in Halifax to be tried for treason - he was rescued by certain of his friends and out of the country before he could be tried. He left his 15-year old pregnant wife behind and sailed for Ireland to take up his legal studies. Once completed, his well connected Irish relatives arranged a promise that he would be appointed attorney general in Nova Scotia. He returned to Halifax in 1781

       .At the end of the American Revolution, the upper class (known as Loyalists to the crown) fled north - an estimated 20,000 to Nova Scotia. In the  election Uniacke and others lost their seats to Loyalists. Once again his family intervened and he was appointed Attorney General in 1797.
       Uniacke and Martha Maria Bonner DelesDernier (1762-1803) had 11 children. In 1808 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Captain Phillips Newton – they had one son.  All the boys were sent overseas for legal training.  The family had a large townhouse in Halifax and a country home at Mount Uniacke which is now a Provincial park.

                                                                                (see Historic Sites)

       As for his politics: he was a moderate Tory. By 1826 he was advocating a federal union an event that took place 37 years after his death.   Uniacke was remembered mostly for the sheer force of his character and his exuberance. Family and friendships were essential to his existence.
      Fondly known as the "Old Attorney General," with a number of his family around him at Mount Uniacke, died on October 11th, 1830. His wish was a simple burial at Mount Uniacke, but he was carried to Halifax to be buried at St. Paul's beside his first wife and his eldest daughter. 

They were Fathers of Confederation negotiating and signing the terms of Confederaton on July 1, 1867, uniting the British North American colonies. On February 15, 1965, the National Flag of Canada was officially unfurled - the nation stretched from sea to sea. They are Nation Builders. Elected. Appointed. Irish. Canadian.


Born in Shanghai, China, 1935, Patricia Carney was 4 years                                                             old when she arrived in Canada with her Irish parents. Her                                                           early education was in Nelson, B.C.  Graduated from high school there and moved to study Arts, Political Science and Economics at the University of British Columbia. With her Bachelor of Arts in hand, she went  on  to UBC School of Community and Regional Planning for her Masters.
     Carney was a successful business columnist, writing principally for the Vancouver Sun  and      Province. In 1970 she focused on socio-economic issues in the North and started her own consulting firm, preparing studies on subjects such as pipelines, satellite communications and labour relations.
     She returned to Vancouver from Yellowknife with a passion to address socio-economic issues not only in the North but the Province. She entered the 1979 federal election as a PC candidate for Vancouver Centre. She was narrowly defeated. She put her name on the ballot the following year. She was elected and, in opposition, served as energy critic.  

     Re-elected in 1984, Carney was appointed Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources, with responsibility for working out a new energy deal with the Western Provinces. In a June    1986 cabinet shuffle she became Minister of International Trade, deeply involved in the Softwood Lumber Dispute and the Free Trade negotiations with the US - successfully negotiated and the Agreement signed.  She was president of the Treasury Board when, just before the 1988 election, she retired to private life and journalism as Executive Editor of Pacific Press.  
     Patricia Carney was appointed to the Senate in 1990. It was another first for a woman  who was out front in every field. She was the first woman Conservative appointed from  BC to the Senate. In her political career, she was the first woman Conservative Member of Parliament ever elected in BC (1980's).

     In her journalism career in the l960’s, she was the first woman business columnist          writing for major daily newspapers. As an educator, she was a Canadian pioneer in the   

development of distance learning systems and in 1977 she received the British Columbia Institute of Technology award for Innovation in Education for “diligent and  creative work”   in the Satellite Tele-Education Program Hermes Project, one of 26 national projects to experiment with the world’s first geostationary interactive communications satellite

Pat Carney has 'retired' but she keeps on politicking for causes.

     One of her major causes is the complex of Arthritis. She has worked with the Arthritis Society since 1977. A founding member of the Arthritis Research Centre of Canada, her advocacy has earned her an Honourary Membership with the Arthritis Society BC and Yukon Division

FOUNDING FATHERS & federal LEADERS

Lawyer. Mayor. QC. MP Founding Father 

TATALAMH an ÉISC         

Lester Bowles Pearson

                                                 Born 1825 in Carlingford, Ireland. His father was a a                                               coastguard with little allowance for his son's formal  -                                                with little allowance for his son's formal education.      However, D’Arcy was an avid reader and when the family moved to Wexford, volumes opened up to him   By study and heart he absorbed   the great legends and traditions of Ireland’s history.  D'Arcy McGee would mature to be, in all respects, iconic Irish: intelligent and gifted wih the word, witty and   engaging, visionary and passionate.
      At 17 years of age, he set sail for the United States, where he landed a job with a Boston newspaper. In 1845 Daniel O’Connell, impressed by a McGee editorial on Irish affairs, invited him to return to Ireland and join The Freeman’s Journal. The Ireland he returned to was an occupied English province. Within a year the blight wiped out the potato crops on which Irish tenant farmers had survived and, whilst the landlords shipped livestock, dairy and crops to England, one-fifth of the Irish died of starvation and more than a million emigrated in desperation.   
         In the midst of struggles and conflicts McGee was charged with treason.    He escaped to North America and was persuaded to settle his family in Canada where he would give voice to a new land and where they might break through  the racial and religious intolerance south of the border.. In 1857 Canada was Ontario and Quebec, united as the Province of Canada; four separately governed Atlantic provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland); two small British colonies on the West Coast beyond the vast lands governed by the Hudson’s Bay Company and peopled by the indigenous First Nations still free to live their nomadic hunter lives.
     McGee settled his family in Montreal, a city of 70,000 (about 1/3 Irish) and started a newspaper, The New Era. The title would be prophetic. His first three editorials called for unity and union. Within the year, McGee was nominated and elected one of three Members of Parliament for Montreal. He wrote three books on the history of Ireland and Irish settlements in North America and, in those days before communications technology, McGee was the most popular and respected lecturer in Canada - a significant part of his nation-wide influence .
     When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, Canadian colonies were at risk as incidents between the United States and Britain threatened war. Seeing the union of the colonies as vital McGee, the ‘fiery Celt’, crossed the floor to join Scotsman John A. MacDonald, Puritan George Brown and others, forming the  coalition that negotiated an agreement with provision for the rights of minorities.
In Ireland the Fenians, formed to overthrow British rule, had considerable support among Irish emigrants in the US. Fearful of thee damage it would do to the rights that had been gained and the reputation of Irish Canadians, McGee strongly opposed the Fenians even as threats against his life increased.
       In the 1867 election, McGee won his seat as a private member of the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada. In Ottawa, on the night of April 6, 1868, he made his last speech urging Nova Scotia to stay in confederation. It was after midnight when the House rose.                                                                              Thomas D’Arcy McGee walked alone to the boarding house. As he turned the key in the lock, he fell, shot through the head. Whilst we grieve a life of potential cut too short, we give thanks that his contributions to Canada, and to all humanity, remain invaluable when we reflect on the standards of justice, peace, equality and human rights that he set and how his legacy continues to significantly define what it means to be Canadian. 

Economist. Journalist. Politician.

BC Institute of Technology award for Innovation in Education

                                                   Lester B. Pearson (affectionately known as Mike a nickname given                                                    to him by his WWII flying instructor,  was born in Toronto, 1897. His mother was from Kilkenny,  his paternal grandfather from Dublin.
     In 1945 Pearson participated in the San Francisco conference to create the United Nations .In 1949 he signed the treaty for the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (N.A.T.O.) and led the Canadian delegation until 1957. He was chairman of  NATO Council in 1951-52. He became President of the U.N. General Assembly in 1952.
     In 1956, Pearson proposed the solution to end the Suez War by sponsoring the creation of a United Nations peacekeeping force - he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957.
     He became the leader of the Liberal Party of Canada in 1958 and, in 1963, he became the 14th Prime Minister of Canada, a position he held until 1968.  

During his tenure as PM, Pearson was known for his foreign policy. But his domestic policies were of primary importance and illustrate his concerns for the benefit of the people of Canada- his creation of the Canada Pension Plan and,  perhaps his greatest gift of all to the people of Canada - a Universal Medical Plan, that has been envied and copied around the world. Whether or not Canada should have a flag of it’s own had been debated for years. Under Pearson’s leadership, the Maple Leaf flag was accepted in 1965 with great acclaim and Canada’s                              unique Maple Leaf flag, was first raised on Parliament Hill Ottawa on Canada

Day July 1st, 1965.

                   scroll down to read about the PM's test of the designed flags

Edward Whelan

Dominick Edward Blake

Lawyer. Politician.                                        

49


Timothy Warren Anglin

Antony A. (Tony) Martin  

Member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario 1990 - 2003,

              Member of Parliament 2004 - 2011                               54

Louis St. Laurent

Tony Martin was born August 31, 1948,  in Ireland the

eldest of 7children. He was twelve years old when his

his family emigrated to Canada and settled in Wawa, Ontario. He attended Laurentian University in Sudbury and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1974. Later in the same year, he received a Diploma in Recreational Leadership from Confederation College. He was the founder of the Sault Ste. Marie Soup Kitchen, and for some time the owner and General Manager of Transcend Homes, a local workers' cooperative. A devout Roman Catholic, Martin also served as a trustee  on the Northern District Catholic School Board, and was a pastoral assistant at  the Blessed Sacrament Parish in Sault Ste. Marie from 1981 to 1990.                       In 1990, Tony was elected as the NDP MPP.for two terms. Martin was appointed as parliamentary assistant to the Minister of Education for the next five years. He again retained his seat in the 1999 election. He was appointed as one of the legislature's Deputy Speakers on October 25, 1999. He dramatically resigned from this position on December 19, 2000, to protest the Mike Harris government's inactivity on poverty issues. Following this, he chaired a series of "People's Parliament on Poverty" meetings.

In 2004, he  was urged to run again, this time for the federal government, and was elected as the MP for Sault Ste. Marie. He was re-elected in the 2006 campaign  and served in the NDP's shadow cabinet as critic for Social Policy, Childcare, Human Resources and Skills Development and the FedNor agency.

     Martin is married to Anna Celetti. They have four children.

Francis Daniel Johnson Sr.

20th Premier of Quebec 1966 until his death in 1968.

Introducer of ''Equality or Independence'                         

                                             45

Francis Alexander Anglin

Lawyer. Politician.

Seventh Chief Justice of Canada 1924 to 1933.                                                                                   ooo